The prevalence of dementia in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in French-speaking countries, has received limited attention. This study investigates the prevalence and risk factors of suspected dementia in elderly adults in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
A community-based sample of 355 individuals over 65 years old was selected using multistage probability sampling in Kinshasa. Participants were screened using the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, Alzheimer’s Questionnaire, Geriatric Depression Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Individual Fragility Questionnaire, followed by clinical interview and neurological examination. Suspected dementia diagnoses were made based on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria including significant cognitive and functional impairments. Prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using, respectively, regression and logistic regression.
Among 355 participants (mean age 74, SD = 7; 51% male), the crude prevalence of suspected dementia was 6.2% (9.0% in women and 3.8% in men). Female sex was a significant factor associated with suspected dementia [OR = 2.81, 95% CI (1.08–7.41)]. The prevalence of dementia increased with age (14.0% after 75 years and 23.1% after 85 years), with age being significantly associated with suspected dementia [OR = 5.42, 95% CI (2.86–10.28)]. Greater education was associated with a lower prevalence of suspected dementia [OR = 2.36, 95% CI (2.14–2.94), comparing those with ≥7.3 years of education to those with <7.3 years of education]. Other factors associated with the prevalence of suspected dementia included being widowed (OR = 1.66, 95% CI (1.05–2.61), being retired or semi-retired (OR = 3.25, 95% CI (1.50–7.03)], a diagnosis of anxiety [OR = 2.56, 95% CI (1.05–6.13)], and death of a spouse or a relative after age 65 [OR = 1.73, 95% CI (1.58–1.92)]. In contrast, depression [OR = 1.92, 95% CI (0.81–4.57)], hypertension [OR = 1.16, 95% CI (0.79–1.71)], body mass index (BMI) [OR = 1.06, 95% CI (0.40–2.79)], and alcohol consumption [OR = 0.83, 95% CI (0.19–3.58)] were not significantly associated with suspected dementia.
This study found a prevalence of suspected dementia in Kinshasa/DRC similar to other developing countries and Central African countries. Reported risk factors provide information to identify high-risk individuals and develop preventive strategies in this setting.
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This post is Copyright: Jean Ikanga,
Dustin B. Hammers,
Alvaro Alonso | September 14, 2023