Neuropsychology, Vol 37(5), Jul 2023, 557-567; doi:10.1037/neu0000876Objectives: (a) To characterize the frequency of objective cognitive deficits and self-perceived cognitive difficulties and (b) to explore demographic and clinical predictors of cognitive dysfunction and cognitive complaints. Method: One hundred and ten adults diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and November 2020, aged ≤ 74 years underwent a brief neuropsychological evaluation 12 months after infection, which included: Brief Visuospatial Memory Test–Revised, California Verbal Learning Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test. T scores < 38 were considered abnormal performance; cognitive dysfunction was defined as ≥ 2 abnormal tests. Participants also completed Broadbent’s Cognitive Failure Questionnaires (CFQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and Short-Form Health Survey. CFQ ≥ 43 was considered indicative of cognitive complaints. Results: Twenty participants (18.2%) had cognitive dysfunction and 36 (33.3%) had cognitive complaints. Cognitive dysfunction was related to lower education, preinfection history of headache/migraine, and acute COVID-19 symptoms of headache and sleep disturbance. Cognitive complaints were more likely to occur in women, those with fewer years of education, and acute COVID-19 symptoms of headache and sleep disturbance. Cognitive complaints were also significantly related to symptoms of anxiety, depression, and fatigue. Sex and psychopathology were not significant predictors of cognitive dysfunction. Modest associations were found between CFQ total score and cognitive test performance. Discussion: A subset of individuals develops cognitive difficulties in the context of post-COVID syndrome. Results may support the protective effect of education, a known proxy of cognitive reserve. COVID-19 infection symptoms of headache and sleep disturbance appear to be risk factors for long-term cognitive difficulties. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)
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This post is Copyright: | January 5, 2023
Neuropsychology – Vol 37, Iss 5