Background and Purpose
We aim to investigate nerve enlargement patterns and their correlation with clinical subtypes and treatment response using nerve ultrasound in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP).
Between March 2015 and December 2021, 135 CIDP patients were recruited. Nerve ultrasound and electrophysiological studies were performed on the median and ulnar nerves. The responses to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) or prednisone were evaluated with the disability score.
There were 99 typical CIDP cases, 10 Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS) cases, 15 distal acquired demyelinating symmetric neuropathy (DADS) cases, nine pure motor CIDP cases, and two pure sensory CIDP cases. Sixty (61%) typical CIDP and seven (78%) pure motor CIDP patients had moderately increased or normal cross-sectional area (CSA), and 10 (67%) DADS and seven (70%) LSS patients had significantly increased CSA. The peripheral nerve showed a diffuse enlargement pattern in 46 (51%) typical CIDP, five (50%) LSS, three (25%) DADS, and three (33%) pure motor CIDP patients and a proximal regional enlargement pattern in 11 (12%) typical CIDP, one (10%) LSS, six (50%) DADS, and four (44%) pure motor CIDP patients. Patients with diffusely moderate enlargement patterns and those with proximal regional enlargement showed a higher response rate to glucocorticoids than to IVIg.
Various distribution patterns of nerve enlargement existed in CIDP. Although almost all patterns could be detected in each CIDP subtype, diffusely moderate enlargement was more common in typical CIDP and LSS, while proximal regional enlargement was more common in DADS and pure motor CIDP. Different enlargement patterns might indicate different treatment responses.

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This post is Copyright: Jingwen Niu,
Lei Zhang,
Nan Hu,
Liying Cui,
Mingsheng Liu | January 10, 2024
Wiley: Journal of Neuroimaging: Table of Contents