Published norms are typically cross-sectional and often are not sensitive to preclinical cognitive changes due to dementia. We developed and validated demographically adjusted cross-sectional and longitudinal normative standards using harmonized outcomes from two Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk-enriched cohorts.
Data from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention and the Wisconsin Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center were combined. Quantile regression was used to develop unconditional (cross-sectional) and conditional (longitudinal) normative standards for 18 outcomes using data from cognitively unimpaired participants (N = 1390; mean follow-up = 9.25 years). Validity analyses (N = 2456) examined relationships between percentile scores (centiles), consensus-based cognitive statuses, and AD biomarker levels.
Unconditional and conditional centiles were lower in those with consensus-based impairment or biomarker positivity. Similarly, quantitative biomarker levels were higher in those whose centiles suggested decline.
This study presents normative standards for cognitive measures sensitive to pre-clinical changes. Future directions will investigate potential clinical applications of longitudinal normative standards.

Quantile regression was used to construct longitudinal norms for cognitive tests.
Poorer percentile scores were related to concurrent diagnosis and Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers.
A ShinyApp was built to display test scores and norms and flag low performance.

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This post is Copyright: Erin M. Jonaitis,
Bruce P. Hermann,
Kimberly D. Mueller,
Lindsay R. Clark,
Lianlian Du,
Tobey J. Betthauser,
Karly Cody,
Carey E. Gleason,
Bradley T. Christian,
Sanjay Asthana,
Richard J. Chappell,
Nathaniel A. Chin,
Sterling C. Johnson,
Rebecca E. Langhough | March 28, 2024

Wiley: Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Table of Contents