We investigate pathological correlates of plasma phosphorylated tau 181 (p-tau181), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament light chain (NfL) across a clinically diverse spectrum of neurodegenerative disease, including normal cognition (NormCog) and impaired cognition (ImpCog).
Participants were NormCog (n = 132) and ImpCog (n = 461), with confirmed β-amyloid (Aβ+/-) status (cerebrospinal fluid, positron emission tomography, autopsy) and single molecule array plasma measurements. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) tested how combining plasma analytes discriminated Aβ+ from Aβ-. Survival analyses tested time to clinical dementia rating (global CDR) progression.
Multivariable models (p-tau+GFAP+NfL) had the best performance to detect Aβ+ in NormCog (ROCAUC = 0.87) and ImpCog (ROCAUC = 0.87). Survival analyses demonstrated that higher NfL best predicted faster CDR progression for both Aβ+ (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.94; p = 8.1e-06) and Aβ- individuals (HR = 3.11; p = 2.6e-09).
Combining plasma biomarkers can optimize detection of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology across cognitively normal and clinically diverse neurodegenerative disease.

Participants were clinically heterogeneous, with autopsy- or biomarker-confirmed Aβ.
Combining plasma p-tau181, GFAP, and NfL improved diagnostic accuracy for Aβ status.
Diagnosis by plasma biomarkers is more accurate in amnestic AD than nonamnestic AD.
Plasma analytes show independent associations with tau PET and post mortem Aβ/tau.
Plasma NfL predicted longitudinal cognitive decline in both Aβ+ and Aβ- individuals.

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This post is Copyright: Katheryn A. Q. Cousins,
Jeffrey S. Phillips,
Sandhitsu R. Das,
Kyra O’Brien,
Thomas F. Tropea,
Alice Chen‐Plotkin,
Leslie M. Shaw,
Ilya M. Nasrallah,
Dawn Mechanic‐Hamilton,
Corey T. McMillan,
David J. Irwin,
Edward B. Lee,
David A. Wolk | April 22, 2024

Wiley: Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Table of Contents