Familial Alzheimer’s disease (fAD) is heterogeneous in terms of age at onset and clinical presentation. A greater understanding of the pathogenicity of fAD variants and how these contribute to heterogeneity will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of AD more widely.
To determine the pathogenicity of the unclassified PSEN1 P436S mutation, we studied an expanded kindred of eight affected individuals, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (two individuals), patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models (two donors), and post-mortem histology (one donor).
An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance of fAD was seen, with an average age at symptom onset of 46 years and atypical features. iPSC models and post-mortem tissue supported high production of amyloid beta 43 (Aβ43). PSEN1 peptide maturation was unimpaired.
We confirm that the P436S mutation in PSEN1 causes atypical fAD. The location of the mutation in the critical PSEN1 proline-alanine-leucine-proline (PALP) motif may explain the early age at onset despite appropriate protein maturation.

PSEN1 P436S mutations cause familial Alzheimer’s disease.
This mutation is associated with atypical clinical presentation.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and post-mortem studies support increased amyloid beta (Aβ43) production.
Early age at onset highlights the importance of the PALP motif in PSEN1 function.

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This post is Copyright: Charles Arber,
Christopher R. S. Belder,
Filip Tomczuk,
Rebecca Gabriele,
Yazead Buhidma,
Clíona Farrell,
Antoinette O’Connor,
Helen Rice,
Tammaryn Lashley,
Nick C. Fox,
Natalie S. Ryan,
Selina Wray | June 2, 2024

Wiley: Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Table of Contents