The trailmaking test (TMT) has an educational bias that makes it inapplicable to people with low levels of education due to its dependence on the alphabet. The TMT standardization is the only one available in Chile, and there is a need for alternative ways of using the TMT that do not depend on the level of education for its applicability. To determine the normative scores of the TMT – black & white (TMT B&W), considering sociodemographic factors in adult and elderly Chilean population. A total sample of 227 participants (133 healthy, 94 cognitively impaired) from the Ageing Mets cohort were recruited from three areas in Chile (Antofagasta, Santiago, and Puerto Montt). The TMT B&W was administered to all participants. A multiple regression model was used to generate normative data only in the cognitively healthy group, considering the effect of age, education and sex. A significant effect of age was found in the score of the TMT B&W Parts A and B. The level of education influenced the part B of the test; however, the completion rate of the TMT B&W parts A and B was over 90% in cognitively healthy people. Norms for the number of errors were obtained, and differences between groups were found after controlling for the effect of age and education. This study is the first to provide normative data for the Chilean version of the TMT B&W and will benefit clinical neuropsychologists by improving the procedures for more accurately assessing executive functions and its impairments.

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Miguel Ramos‐Henderson | April 27, 2024
Wiley: Journal of Neuropsychology: Table of Contents